From Chocolate consumption and risk of diabetes mellitus in the Physicians’ Health Study, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 101, Issue 2, February 2015, Pages 362–367, https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.114.092221. By researchers in Japan: Chisa Matsumoto, Andrew B Petrone, Howard D Sesso, J Michael Gaziano, Luc Djoussé.
Our data support an inverse relation of chocolate intake with incident Diabetes Mellitus (DM), which appears only to apply in younger and normal–body weight men* after controlling for comprehensive life styles including total energy consumption.
For self-reported chocolate consumption and % likelihood versus control / referrent of 100% for no chocolate consumption at 95% confidence interval, adjusted for lifestyle, clinical, and dietary risk factors including total energy intake:
|1-3 servings / mo:||93%|
|1 serving / wk:||86%|
|>2 servings / wk:||83%|
*This study was based on analysis of 18,235 [All Male] Physician's Health Study who were free of Diabetes Mellitus at baseline (1997–2001). Chocolate consumption was obtained from a baseline food-frequency questionnaire. Incident DM was ascertained via annual follow-up questionnaires and validated in a subsample by a review of medical records.
Equivalent Serving Size: unknown based on self-reported data.