From The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption, Frontiers in Pharmacology, Volume 6, 2015. ISSN=1663-9812. By researchers in Spain: Martínez-Pinilla Eva, Oñatibia-Astibia Ainhoa, Franco Rafael.
- "Theobromine and caffeine, in the proportions found in cocoa, are responsible for the liking of the food/beverage. These compounds influence in a positive way our moods and our state of alertness."
- Theobromine, which is found in higher amounts than caffeine, seems to be behind several effects attributed to cocoa intake. The main mechanisms of action are inhibition of phosphodiesterases and blockade of adenosine receptors.
- This is important because "Manipulations of adenosine receptors influence sleep and arousal, cognition and memory, neuronal damage and degeneration, as well as neuronal maturation."
The article goes on to state additional benefits of Theobromine from cacao may include:
- anti-inflammatory or
- cardiovascular protector molecule without the undesirable side effects described for caffeine.
The main mechanisms of action of theobromine are inhibition of phosphodiesterases and blockade of adenosine receptors but, interestingly, it exhibits other important adenosine receptor-independent effects as the reduction of cellular oxidative stress or regulation of gene expression. "
Equivalent Serving Size: specific dose recommendations were not referenced this article.